Alpha PVP (Flakka)
Alpha PVP (Flakka) ( alpha -pyrrolidinovalérophénone) is the most powerful drug psychostimulant family of cathinones . It is a demethylated analogue of pyrovalerone .
Alpha PVP (Flakka)It was first prepared and researched in the 1960s and has since remained unknown until it appeared as a designer drug from the 2010s under the name Flakka , causing a wave of psychotic crises and accidents 3 , very publicised.
It causes hypertension, tachycardia, intellectual and physical stimulation, anxiety and in high doses induces a strong modification of behaviour.
Flakka is the street name for a synthetic cathinone named alpha-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (Alpha-PVP). It is chemically similar to other synthetic drugs known as “Bath Salts.” These synthetics mimic cathinone, an amphetamine-like stimulant found naturally in the khat plant.
Flakka comes in the form of white or pink crystals that are ingested by eating, snorting, injecting or vaporising (similar to an e-cigarette).
Alpha PVP (Flakka) Chemistry
1-Phenyl-2- (1-pyrrolidinyl) -1-pentanone is a cathinone and is the demethylated analogue of pyrovalerone, a former drug now classified as a narcotic. The presence of an asymmetric carbon in position 3 leads to the formation of two R and S isomers .
Α-PVP and its hydrochloride salt are in the form of a white, crystalline powder soluble in PBS , ethanol and DMF .
It is synthesised from valerophenone in two steps.
Pharmacological data concerning Alpha PVP (Flakka) are scarce and relate mainly to animal models.
Alpha PVP (Flakka) side effects?
Alpha PVP (Flakka) is a dangerous drug that has many bad side effects, mostly including changes in behavior or mood. Even slight overdoses of Alpha PVP (Flakka) can cause
- extreme agitation,
- jerking muscle movements,
- delirious thoughts,
- hallucinations, and
- often profound paranoia.
In some of the documented delusions, individuals’ experiences are of a typical paranoia, where the drug users feel they are being chased by a large group of people trying to kill them. These patients are a threat to themselves, the people around them, and the first responders (police, EMS) who are there to help them. It is common to hear reports that it takes multiple people to restrain and sedate these patients. Rescue crews and emergency department staff need to give sedatives to these patients to calm them and make them safe.
complications of Flakka use?
Some complications of Alpha PVP (Flakka) drug abuse can happen while the drug user is acutely agitated, if they were to harm themselves or others; however, medically, the severe consequences of the agitation caused by the drug appear later. Patients who are agitated can go into a state called “excited delirium,” which is a medical emergency. In the excited delirium state, restrained patients struggle to free themselves, scream, flail, and can even have seizures. This struggling causes a high core body temperature called hyperthermia. The combination of a high body temperature and the extreme muscle overactivity can cause other metabolic problems to happen in the body. Muscle tissue begins to break down, releasing proteins and other cellular products into the bloodstream, in a process called rhabdomyolysis. The extreme struggling can also cause dehydration. The end result of the cellular products and proteins released during rhabdomyolysis and dehydration can impair the filtering function of the kidneys, leading to renal failure and death. In addition, such agitation may trigger Taser use or other methods that have the potential to harm the individual when law enforcement personnel have to intervene.
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